PositiveLite.com says: an understanding of the effectiveness of condoms in preventing HIV transmission in normal use is very important both for people who use them and the HIV prevention specialists who deals daily in discussing risk of transmission. The full text of this article should be read carefully, though, to avoid misunderstanding its conclusions and implications for prevention messaging and as the authors do, to situate condom use among different options, including PrEP and treatment as prevention.
Study authors: Robert S. Remis, Michel Alary, Juan Liu, Rupert Kaul, Robert W. H. Palmer
Despite preventive efforts, HIV incidence remains high among men who have sex with men (MSM) in industrialized countries. Condoms are an important element in prevention but, given the high frequency of condom use and their imperfect effectiveness, a substantial number and proportion of HIV transmissions may occur despite condoms. We developed a model to examine this hypothesis.
We used estimates of annual prevalent and incident HIV infections for MSM in Ontario. For HIV-negative men, we applied frequencies of sexual episodes and per-contact HIV transmission risks of receptive and insertive anal sex with and without a condom and oral sex without a condom. We factored in the proportion of HIV-infected partners receiving antiretroviral therapy and its impact in reducing transmissibility. We used Monte-Carlo simulation to determine the plausible range for the proportion of HIV transmissions for each sexual practice.
Among Ontario MSM in 2009, an estimated 92,963 HIV-negative men had 1,184,343 episodes of anal sex with a condom and 117,133 anal sex acts without a condom with an HIV-positive partner. Of the 693 new HIV infections, 51% were through anal sex with a condom, 33% anal sex without a condom and 16% oral sex. For anal sex with a condom, the 95% confidence limits were 17% and 77%.
The proportion of HIV infections related to condom failure appears substantial and higher than previously thought. That 51% of transmissions occur despite condom use may be conservative (i.e. low) since we used a relatively high estimate (87.1%) for condom effectiveness. If condom effectiveness were closer to 70%, a value estimated from a recent CDC study, the number and proportion of HIV transmissions occurring despite condom use would be much higher. Therefore, while condom use should continue to be promoted and enhanced, this alone is unlikely to stem the tide of HIV infection among MSM.
Copyright: © 2014 Remis et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
The full document can be read on the PLOS One website here.
PositiveLite.com hopes readers will find the following extract useful in interpreting the research conclusions.
Though our results are not mathematically surprising, it may mean that preventive messages historically disseminated to men who have sex with men should be modified. The prevailing message is that condoms reduce the risk of HIV and that, furthermore, the consistent use of condoms provides excellent protection against HIV. Nonetheless, while this message may need to be qualified, this is not to say that condoms have not played a significant role in decreasing HIV transmission rates among MSM, particularly compared to what might have occurred had this measure not been introduced and disseminated. While it is impossible to assess the hypothetical trajectory of the epidemic without the availability and widespread use of condoms for prevention, clearly it would have been significantly more severe. Thus, condoms have been and should remain an important tool in our armamentarium for reducing the risk of HIV transmission among MSM.
Although effective antiretroviral therapy dramatically reduces HIV transmission risk from an infected individual , , it is also clear that HIV transmission continues to occur in MSM populations in most Western industrialized countries virtually unabated over the past 15 years. Indeed, in most MSM populations, HIV incidence appears to have increased since the advent of highly effective ART in the mid-1990s. For example, in Canada, estimated HIV incidence in MSM in 2011 was 70% higher than in 1996 . Therefore, although both condoms and ART have played a critical role in reducing HIV transmission among MSM, they have clearly not succeeded in controlling the epidemic in this population.
There is a potential risk in oversimplifying the dissemination of our findings, disseminating a message that condoms are not as effective as we might think. This could lead to a reduction in condom use and resulting increases in HIV incidence. This is not the intent of the present work, and nor is it the necessary implication of our findings. Rather, our results mean that condoms need to be used more effectively in this population, such that condom effectiveness can more closely approximate condom efficacy. Thus, we must not abandon our efforts to improve the best practice in terms of the use of condoms addressing the potential errors that may result in reduced condom effectiveness including such issues as placing the condom on the penis before any sexual contact. There is evidence from Ontario, for example, that some men are applying condoms partway through the sexual act and exposing their partners to virus that may be present and perhaps in high concentration in pre-ejaculate . We did not assess the specific role of delayed application of condoms in the present analysis but this could well be a factor in ongoing HIV transmission. Rather than suggesting that condoms be abandoned since they are not fully effective, their use should be encouraged and reinforced to ensure that they are used to maximize their effectiveness in preventing HIV transmission.
Our results force us to consider whether condom use, either alone or in conjunction with high community rates of ART, is enough to control HIV transmission in men who have sex with men. For example, the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis among the most at-risk MSM could contribute to reducing HIV transmission in this population –. In addition, modifying other aspects of patterns of sexual behaviour may also be necessary. This could include reducing the number of sexual partners and selecting partners who are less likely to be HIV-infected which may in turn be related to where they are recruited (e.g. bathhouses) and type of partner (i.e. regular versus casual). This has historically been a sensitive issue but it is clear that the prevalence of HIV in sexual partners will determine the likelihood of HIV acquisition and the number of partners will also increase the chance an individual will have sex with somebody who is infected and become HIV-infected.
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