So there I was, getting up at three in the morning once again in order to get to Toronto in time for an event. The event in this case was "Rethinking Justice 2017 Symposium on HIV Law and Human Rights" and I'd been looking forward to it especially since I knew a representative of the federal government would be there and I was very keen to hear what that representative might have to say to us. Two buses and a train later, I was in Toronto, waiting for the symposium to begin.
First off, Trevor Stratton of the Canadian Aboriginal AIDS Network (CAAN) welcomed us to the land and the conference. He went on to say that indigenous people understand about criminalization and to emphasize that indigenous women in particular are also disproportionately criminalized.
Next we heard Richard Elliott, Executive Director of the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network, who also welcomed us, gave an overview of the day to come and posed the symposium’s overarching question: “Should we look at changing provisions in the criminal code that are used to criminalize people?”
After that the symposium proper got underway. The first segment was entitled “The State of HIV Criminalization” and it began with an audio presentation from Alex McClelland of Concordia University in partnership with the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network. Alex does qualitative research, focusing on peoples’ lives in order to arrive at an empirical basis to assess the damage of injustice and violence at the hands of government employees. The audio portion of his segment consisted of various people talking about their experience of being criminalized and a lot of it was pretty hard to hear:
“I thought I was innocent until proven guilty.” “I was naked, along in a room with male guards watching me.” That sort of thing.
Unfortunately Alex was not able to attend in person but did address us by video after the audio presentation and then there was a live panel of persons living with HIV, during which Chad Clarke spoke in some detail about his own horrific experience, including beatings and deprivation of his HIV medication at the hands of the Canadian justice system employees.
And that set us up to hear our policy-makers’ response to HIV criminalization. The speaker was Marco Mendocino, Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Justice and Attorney General of Canada and as I sat here listening, I began to feel unexpectedly, if cautiously, optimistic.
He began by reaffirming the government's commitment to HIV criminalization reform, saying there is “No doubt that we have a long way to go.” He went on to say that “HIV is not a crime. It should not be criminalized,” and delivered the news that Prime Minister Justin Trudeau has “introduced legislation to quash and erase previous unjust convictions.”
“HIV non-disclosure is a public health issue,” he said, and also, “Mabior made clear that future scientific development must be taken into account.” He went on to say that the use of the aggravated sexual assault provision “deserves further consideration… we want to get this right and are committed to taking the time and resources to do so.” It was remarkable to hear such positivity about HIV decriminalization from a government representative and it drew a big hand of applause.
Next came a panel discussion on “Criminalization in Canada and Internationally”, which I didn't get to attend as peers on the panel didn’t want any media presence during the discussion.
The subject of the second panel was “The Science and its Interaction with the Law,” and that panel featured Megan Longley, a criminal defense lawyer who was the counsel in R v JTC (NSSC, 2013) as well as Art Poon, an Assistant Professor at Western University.
Megan’s talk was on the role of scientific evidence in avoiding wrongful convictions. As she told us, she’s a lawyer who also likes science and who had come to feel that the current state of HIV criminalization made little rational sense. She impressed on us the importance of science in proving these cases and delivered a short “Prosecution 101” as it applies to aggravated sexual assault. One of the more startling points made was that sexual assault cases are in fact very difficult to convict. Only about 3% of them do. Until, that is, you factor in HIV. In HIV-related sexual assault cases the rate is over seventy percent. And once we start to factor in such things as race or background of the defendant, a very disturbing picture emerges.
Art Poon spoke on “Phylogenetic Forensic Science and Implications for HIV Criminalization”, which turned out to be about the limitations of said evidence in such cases. “Phyloclusters offer great potential for misuse… there is little talk about the implications of these methods.” Although two individuals may carry HIV strains that are closely related, these will not necessarily be unique to the two parties and could extend to other persons within the same transmission network. More on this in my interview with Edwin J. Bernard, here.
After lunch we reconvened for an update on the campaign for prosecutorial guidelines by Glenn Betteridge, who is a staff lawyer with HIV & AIDS Legal Clinic Ontario (HALCO). Glenn spoke on how in Canada the provinces are responsible for the administration of justice. The Attorney General can suggest or set guidelines for prosecution lawyers but cannot dictate. Cops lay charges. Crown attorneys filter and stream them and they go forward if they’re deemed to have a chance of success and/or there’s sufficient community interest.
B. C. has a guideline for prosecuting these cases, as do England, Wales and, since 2014, Scotland. But we heard that here in Canada the Attorney General had previously ignored the science as well as community advocacy and had secretly devised a playbook. Since then, Ontario has been making favorable statements regarding HIV criminalization, but seem to have adopted a “wait and see” stance.
As to where the resistance to reform is coming from, Glenn told us that Ministers have been passive, disinterested because they see the issue as a loser politically. Also, Attorneys General are not used to being challenged or to being responsive to outside concerns. He went on to call the situation “a study in bureaucratic intransigence.”
We then heard presentations by Notisha Massaquoi, who is the Executive Director of Women’s Health in Women’s Hands and who spoke on “Critical Feminist Approaches to HIV Criminalization and the Law of Sexual Assault” and then Richard Elliott laid out the pros and cons of “Criminal Code Amendments as a Strategy to Limit Unjust HIV Criminalization.”
Ryan Peck, co-chair of the Ontario Working Group on Criminal Law and HIV Exposure spoke to us then on “Forging a community consensus: identifying elements of a consensus statement,” and the Canadian Community Consensus Statement on Ending Unjust Prosecutions for HIV Non-disclosure, following which we split up into groups for an exercise in forging consensus on these questions:
1 – Do you think it is ever appropriate to prosecute non-disclosure of HIV-positive status as a crime? Why or why not? What kind of situations might be legitimately prosecuted? What kind of situations should clearly be excluded from prosecution?
2 – Do you think it’s ever appropriate to prosecute non-disclosure of HIV-positive status as “sexual assault?” Why of why not?
3 – What do you think about changing the criminal code to exclude prosecutions for sexual assault and instead having a specific offence about non-disclosure?
What this exercise showed me is that even within our community it’s not easy to get consensus on these issues. And while the majority clearly favoured prosecutorial guidelines, it wasn’t unanimous. One lady stated that such guidelines would be of no use to her because as a Black woman she will always be a target for criminalization in our society.
Directly following the exercise there was discussion, facilitated by Tim McCaskell, a founding member of AIDS Action Now! and Valerie Pierre-Pierre, Director of the African and Caribbean Council on HIV/AIDS in Ontario (ACCHO)
Attending the Rethinking Justice Symposium presented a truly fascinating overview of the current state of play on the issue of HIV criminalization and I heard several people observe that here in Canada we seem to be on the cusp of some really favorable developments after moving so long in the other direction. Cautious optimism, as I said.
Here’s hoping that wave of optimism turns out to be justified and that we can ride it into a better future.